Free Essays words 1. Other groups believed the election was fraud and many Western countries were convinced the voting was fake. A couple days after the voting, Aung San Suu Kyi, who was on house arrest, preventing her from taking part in the election, was released. Last 3 years ago, the collapsed of Bangladesh garment factory may have horrified consumers in the West but the working conditions it exposed hardly are an anomaly in the global garment industry Better Essays words 3. Despite growing local pressure and international criticism of the military government in Myanmar, the military junta remains in control by denying all basic freedoms including the media, public protest and civil society.
The poor governance in Myanmar has brought about poverty, poor health care, low educational standards and systematic human rights abuses. The country have enough natural resources and educated public to make one good economy. This qualitative method will explain and describes the data expressively and comprehensive. It will also highlight on each words and content more than quantifications. All of the research data were based on comprising interviews with workers and management authorities and data collect by workplace surveys with employees and secondary sources came from the Ministry of Labor, Myanmar Garment Manufacturing Association MGMA , Action Labor Ri If education can be used to promote nationalistic political agendas, then it can be used to promote inclusiveness and mutual understanding.
Children do not naturally inherit historical trauma, it is learned, and education can be used to teach children how to think independently and critically to overcome historical bias. Lastly, by enabling children to attend school they can get out of poverty in a way that otherwise would be impossible, therefore students can learn and meet others not from the same ethnic group that otherwise they would not have even interacted However, I think there are less obvious and more interesting examples that highlight nationalism being utilized in order to support state autocracy Better Essays words 2 pages Preview.
Worldwide, flood disasters account for about one-third of all natural disasters in terms of number and economic losses Berz Burma relinquished the region of Arakan now known as the Rakhine State. A second war between British and Burmese people was fought in , and again Britain won, this time claiming the lower part of Burma. In , it was separated from India by the British and turned into a crown colony.
Five years later, Burma would be invaded by Japan, which occupied the region with the assistance of the Burma Independence Army Strong Essays words 2. Besides, it also indicate its mission documented to state holders in terms of using strategic management , but they should reshape a more detail about formal mission statement. Consequently, risks to lose human lives, goods and environmental assets are increasing. Therefore, understanding flood response characteristics and flood estimates are required not only for design and economic appraisal of hydraulic works, but also for efficient flood management schemes.
Myanmar, the second biggest country in Southeast Asia,is highly exposed to flood hazards due to its complex topography and high rainfall intensities during the southwest monsoon season. However, because religion is left to interpretation of its audiences, religion itself can only be as peaceful or as violent as its followers make it. When religious beliefs are paired with religious intolerance, and people willing to act on that intolerance, religious beliefs can take a turn towards violence, death, and destruction It is because they believe that a name can give power, authority, allegiances, and other special values.
In many African countries such as Ghana and Nigeria or Asian countries such as Myanmar, the naming ceremony for a newborn baby is very special for the baby and the family. Even the entire society may become involved in celebrating it. People believe a name will bring the prestigious culture values to the baby that will allow him or her to fit well in the society They believe that a name can give power, authority, allegiances, and other special values.
The entire society may become involved in celebrating it. Sir James would continue to sail until in September , he would land in Penang remaining there for two years pillaging any rival European ships that were to harbor there. Karl Marx makes this theory aid to form equality between societies and have a better life of society. In Karl Marx era, his founds that huge gap in society between bourgeois and workers.
Bourgeois enjoy the fruit of labour while workers contribute labour. Bourgeois introduce material forces of production based on Marx terminology that include capital, land and labour, whereas social relations of production refers to the division of labour and implied class relationship Term Papers words 4. However, GMS countries hold differing perspectives on the management of geographic and economic potentials.
This supposition has been considered a key factor in GMS economies, specifically because geographic proximity leads to similarities in ethnicities, religions and culture. The high annual revenues Thailand receives through trade with neighboring GMS countries is an indicator of considerable increases in future trade. Thus, to determine the directionality of competitiveness among GMS markets, Thailand is a suitable basis for assessing the benefits and differences among GMS countries, as well as how these aspects drive the GMS economies What and who causes such big issue. Moreover, the theory and methods of CEPA, based on the composite curves explanation have been described in Chapter 2 in Section 2.
Therefore, the following discussions will only focus on the application of CEPA technique for planning how Myanmar can best fulfil future electricity demand for a population that is anticipated to peak in , while also fulfilling the goal of lowest emissions as possible from renewable generation, and lower environment Sangau community, which is as regards kms from Aizawl, is the closest resolution to Phawngpui Women have to stay home with kids and do house choir. Malala speak up and she got shot in her head on her way back to home from school.
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Governments try to prevent the issue through legal restrictions such as prohibition which has caused the formation of the black market In general, people can measure the currency internationalization level by looking at the usage of a currency in cross-border trade, amount of the currency settlements, amount of the currency used in investment, numbers of bonds, and etc. This sense is coupled with ethnic identities, cultural customs, and social implications.
The groups that inhabit the corner of the world, now known as Myanmar, have had great struggles and upheavals through the last century. They have been stricken with World War, independence struggles, as well as military dictatorship. The Burmese groups have tried with diligence to establish their own states, but in the end all has fallen upon them and their tale is one of grief and sadness TRCS Strategic Plan — main aspects 1 to improve and disseminate the Red Crescent culture sic , 2 to make perfect the organisational function and interaction at local, national and international level, 3 to focus on services to provide qualified and efficient service, 4 to su The Guiding Principles set out the basic labour and human rights and acknowledge that the economic growth is essential but is not sufficient to ensure equality, social progress and the eradication of poverty Term Papers words 2.
Whether they peturb a region, nation or continent, their effects are nonetheless devastating to those involved. Disrupting social, economic and political organisations, these hazards are phenomena that damage and strain human infrastructures Term Papers words 4 pages Preview. Her father, Aung San was the de facto prime minister of British.
He played a major role in helping Burma win independence from the British in Unfortunately, he was assassinated on July 19, before Burma became independent. Her mother, Daw Khin Kyi, was also active in politics before and after being married. In , her mother was appointed as Burmese ambassador to India Since the US-alliance withdraw its military troops from Afghanistan by the end of , there is an increasing concern that China will fill the power vacuum in Afghanistan as more than 70 percent of oils is imported from the Middle East and Africa. Thus, India views Afghanistan in the context of rivalry with China due to Afghanistan's substantial economic potentials and its buffer state status.
At the same time, Nopen claims that China also sees 'Afghanistan as a pawn in its rivalry with India, completing a series of alliance with Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh' as both China and India are heavily dependent on energy supplies and resources from other states as the world's major ener The image of manslaughter, mass murder and death sprawl across the thoughts of families at home, waiting for their husbands and wives, fathers and mothers, sons and daughters to finally be finished their tour and come home. However what people commonly misunderstand is that there is a growing population of youth militia being used in modern guerilla military Mobile Banking The growth of technology communication has useful for the human life activities.
The technologists have been trying to access this technology for fulfilling the human life requirement so that users can be able to deal without costly, take time and limited spaces.
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Better Essays words 1. This essay will also elucidate reasons that realist standpoint on international law are valid. Firstly, subjects of the law; generally the subjects of the international law are states which may hold and exercise rights while citizens are known as the subjects for the domestic law.
Essentially, legal personality who has rights and duties under international law or national law should be taken into consideration In the past several years, it can be seen that various news concerned critical climate variability and extreme weather. Since June, local authorities, politicians, and monks have acted, often through public statements and force, to prevent the Rohingya and Kaman populations in their midst from conducting ordinary day-to-day activities.
They have denied Muslims their rights to freedom of movement, opportunities to earn a living, and access to markets and to humanitarian aid. The apparent goal has been to coerce them to abandon their homes and leave the area. If any food entered to the Rohingya part of the village they would stop it. Crimes against humanity included killings, forcible population transfers and deportation, persecution, and other violence that were widespread, systematic, and directed at the Muslim population.
The many public statements and documents from political and religious leaders demonstrated a policy of committing crimes against humanity. The use of terror-inspiring tactics by Arakanese mobs shows intent to commit ethnic cleansing. Burmese state involvement in the crimes appears to have been both direct and indirect. While much of the violence appears to have been carried out by mobs with weapons, various branches of the state security forces stood by and did nothing to provide security for attacked Muslims and at times participated directly in the atrocities — this includes the local police, Lon Thein riot police, the inter-agency border control force called Nasaka, and the army and navy.
Human Rights Watch found no indications that the Burmese government has seriously investigated or taken legal action against those responsible for planning, organizing, or participating in the violence either in June or October. This absence of accountability lends credence to allegations that this was a government-supported campaign of ethnic cleansing in which crimes against humanity were committed. Security forces have actively impeded accountability and justice by overseeing or ordering the digging of mass graves, or by digging mass graves themselves, in some cases after killings involving state security forces.
For instance, on June 13, a government truck dumped 18 naked and half-clothed bodies near a Rohingya IDP camp outside of Sittwe, which local Rohingya buried in two mass graves. None of the bodies were identified. By leaving the bodies near a camp for displaced Rohingya, the soldiers were sending a message — consistent with a policy of ethnic cleansing — that the Rohingya should leave permanently. Some had burns, some had stab wounds. One gunshot wound was on the forehead, one on the chest. Witnesses also said they saw several Burmese army soldiers digging a large mass grave on June 14, with trucks full of dead bodies, on a road outside a Rohingya IDP camp near Sittwe.
Arakan State is now in the midst of a major humanitarian crisis. While the Burmese government has hosted high-profile diplomatic visits to displacement sites in an apparent show of commitment to the needs of those affected by the violence, it has simultaneously obstructed the delivery of humanitarian aid, leading to an unknown number of preventable deaths. Tens of thousands of Rohingya have fled the country by sea with hopes of reaching Bangladesh, Malaysia, or Thailand, and many thousands more appear ready to do the same.
The humanitarian situation in Rohingya IDP sites throughout the state remains dire, even in the larger camps populated by those displaced in June Tens of thousands of Rohingya are currently not receiving adequate assistance. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs OCHA , thousands of children are at risk of dying from acute malnutrition, while tens of thousands are without sufficient shelter, food, water, and sanitation.
Nearly every IDP site suffers disturbing inadequacies, though the particulars vary from site to site. Meanwhile, the relatively few sites populated by displaced Arakanese have been well provided for by local and national government programs, and are supported by national TV and radio fundraising drives that secure donations from Burmese society only for displaced Arakanese.
The deep and widespread animosity among the local Arakanese community toward the UN agencies and international organizations providing relief to displaced Muslim populations has provided another serious obstacle to the delivery of humanitarian aid. Arakanese residents and Buddhist monks have protested against international aid for Rohingya, physically blocked aid deliveries, and threatened aid workers. The state security forces have done little to end the obstruction.
The government has also continued to prevent international aid organizations from resuming some programs that existed prior to the onset of the violence in June. This has had a very negative humanitarian impact on the Muslim populations, particularly in the northern part of the state. Violence between Buddhists and Muslims in Arakan State dates back many decades. The contemporary conflict can be traced at least to the Second World War, when the Rohingya remained loyal to the British colonial rulers, and the Arakanese sided with the invading Japanese. Clashes between Arakanese and Rohingya have occurred ever since.
While both populations have faced oppression by successive Burmese governments after independence in , governments in the predominantly Buddhist country have routinely persecuted and forcibly displaced the Rohingya population, altering the ethnic profile of Arakan State. In , the Burmese military drove over , Rohingya out of the country in a bloody rampage of killings, rape, and arson. The military repeated its anti-Rohingya campaign in with a wave of attacks that forced over , Rohingya to flee to Bangladesh.
Many of those were ultimately forced back to Burma — to northern Arakan State, where the Burmese government has sought to concentrate the Rohingya away from Arakanese-dominated parts of the state, and has subjected them to a battery of restrictive regulations and denial of rights. Violence against Muslims in the state has continued over the years. In , Arakanese mobs attacked Rohingya in Sittwe, destroying mosques and schools while state security forces stood by and watched.
Central to the persecution of the Rohingya is the Citizenship Law, which effectively denies Burmese citizenship to Rohingya on discriminatory ethnic grounds. Kaman Muslims, as a legally recognized ethnic group, are Burmese citizens. The government has made use of this denial of citizenship to deprive Rohingya of many fundamental rights. Rohingya face restrictions on freedom of movement, education, marriage, and employment — rights that are guaranteed to non-citizens as well as citizens under international law. Various other human rights violations have accompanied the persecution of the Rohingya over the years, including arbitrary detention, forced labor, rape, torture, forcible relocations, and other abuses.
While the Burmese government and military has similarly mistreated the Arakanese population over the years, the oppression and abuse of the Rohingya in Arakan State has been particularly severe. Since the June violence, thousands of Rohingya asylum seekers have attempted to flee from Burma to Bangladesh, crossing the Naf River or finding alternative routes by sea.
The Bangladeshi government closed its borders, forcing asylum seekers back to sea on barely seaworthy boats in violation of its international legal obligation not to return someone to a place where they face persecution. It continues to be invoked by Arakanese community leaders who view expulsion of Rohingya from Burma as an appropriate political solution. But this notion extends beyond the Arakanese population and dominates thinking in much of Burmese officialdom and society.
Even in the absence of further attempts to drive Rohingya from the country or keep them in displacement camps away from their homes, there are serious concerns that the government seeks to segregate the Buddhist and Muslim populations in Arakan State, facilitating the deprivation of fundamental rights of the largely stateless Rohingya. Perhaps in response to growing international concerns, Thein Sein subsequently offered a more helpful response to the situation. Since then, however, the government has taken no significant steps to address these issues, or even to provide a roadmap for the way forward.
In the meantime, violence against Muslims in Burma has spread beyond Arakan State. Between March 20 and 22, mobs of Buddhists, led in some instances by Buddhist monks, attacked Muslims in Meiktila, Mandalay Region, following weeks of incitement through anti-Muslim sermons by members of the Buddhist monkhood. An estimated 40 were killed and 61 were wounded, and the destruction of Muslim property, businesses, and places of worship was clearly visible from satellite imagery.
According to a needs assessment released by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs OCHA , over 12, people were displaced by the violence in Meiktila and are in shelters around the town. After the Burma army ended the violence in Meiktila on March 23, anti-Muslim violence spread elsewhere in central Burma, including Okpho, Gyobingauk, and Minhla townships of Pegu Region. Soldiers reportedly fired warning shots in the air to disperse protesters in Pegu, and the government placed another nine townships in Burma under emergency provisions or curfew, limiting public assembly.
Understandably, most of the Muslims in Arakan State interviewed by Human Rights Watch expressed desperation and hopelessness as to their current situation and future. The authorities have done little to reverse their plight. When mobs of Arakanese were destroying a Muslim quarter of Kyauk Pyu Township in October, one displaced Muslim man asked an army soldier for protection. Human Rights Watch conducted research for this report in Burma and Bangladesh in June and July , and in Burma in October and November , and continued to closely monitor the situation through the time of writing.
The report is based on interviews with individuals who witnessed or were otherwise directly affected by the violence in June and October , and at least 10 group interviews with Rohingya, Kaman, and Arakanese, encompassing over additional persons. The individual interviews overall comprised 54 Rohingya, 34 Arakanese, and 9 Kaman, as well as additional interviews with aid workers and others. Human Rights Watch visited more than 20 displacement sites, including informal camps for internally displaced Arakanese and Rohingya, and formally established internally displaced person camps for Rohingya and Kaman.
Interviews were conducted in Burmese, Arakanese, and Rohingya languages with English interpretation. In a few cases, we conducted interviews directly in English. While the Burmese authorities are beginning to allow media and nongovernmental organizations to conduct research or monitor human rights issues inside violence-affected areas, access to many areas is still difficult and replete with security challenges.
Moreover, researching human rights in Burma continues to be a difficult undertaking because of surveillance of the population by agents of the state and the risk of government retaliation against victims or others who provide information to researchers.
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Researching human rights abuses against Muslims brings an added risk of retaliation from local Buddhist communities in Arakan State opposed to such research. Because of possible reprisals, the names of the victims, witnesses, and the precise dates and locations of interviews have been withheld. Pseudonyms are used for all interviewees named in this report, and interviews are cited with initials that do not reflect the actual initials of those interviewed. In some cases, other identifying information has been withheld in the interest of protecting confidentiality.
All those interviewed were informed of the purpose of the interview, its voluntary nature, and the ways in which the information would be used. All provided oral consent to be interviewed. None received compensation. Between June and December , Human Rights Watch also consulted and interviewed numerous UN and NGO staff members; national, regional, and local politicians; democracy activists, and local and international journalists who provided additional information about the situation in Arakan State. We also drew on a number of secondary sources including UN reports, academic studies and other publications, previous Human Rights Watch reporting, and other NGO reports.
As such, Human Rights Watch refers to the Buddhist ethnic population as Arakanese while the Burmese government refers to them as Rakhine. All of these terms are used within Burma. Police arrest them and later report that one of the men committed suicide in police custody. The remaining two are brought to court, found guilty, and sentenced to death.
June 3 : Hundreds of Arakanese surround a bus carrying Muslim travelers at a government checkpoint in Toungop, Arakan State. Ten Muslims are forced off the bus and beaten to death while nearby police and army soldiers look on but do not intervene to stop the violence. Tasked with reporting to the president by June 30, the committee has yet to publish any findings. June : Violence spreads to Sittwe Township, where Arakanese and Rohingya clash in arson attacks and killings. State security forces fail to intervene to stop the violence or protect either side, and in some cases participate in the violence against Muslims.
Security forces begin a crackdown on Muslims, displacing about , people from their homes, including 75, Muslims. They conduct forcible mass arrests of Rohingya men and boys throughout the state. Hundreds of Rohingya are detained incommunicado. June President Thein Sein calls a state of emergency in Arakan State, putting the armed forces in charge of restoring order and instituting a curfew in several townships throughout the state.
July 6: The UN announces that the government has detained 10 Rohingya aid workers from UN and international humanitarian agencies. At this writing, five remain detained without being publicly charged. UNHCR quickly rejects the proposal. September : The government hosts a two-day workshop in Naypyidaw on the situation in Arakan State. October : Violence erupts nearly simultaneously in nine townships throughout Arakan State with attacks against Rohingya and Kaman Muslims. Approximately 40, are displaced. State security forces again fail to intervene, and many.
Among the dead are at least 70 Muslims massacred in Mrauk-U, including 28 children. November April Sporadic incidents of violence against Muslims in Arakan State continue, including sexual violence by security forces against Rohingya women. Tens of thousands are living precariously in IDP camps or isolated communities, without livelihoods and access to urgently needed humanitarian aid. News reports indicate several hundred Rohingya have died at sea. The statements and pamphlets typically deny the existence of the Rohingya ethnicity, demonize the Rohingya, and call for their removal from the country.
Most were issued following public meetings that national officials should have understood to be clear warning signs of imminent and serious violence. The two groups most influential in organizing anti-Rohingya activities in this period were the local order of Buddhist monks the sangha and the locally powerful Rakhine Nationalities Development Party RNDP , a party founded in by Arakanese nationalists. The RNDP currently holds 18 of the 45 seats in the state parliament, or hluttaw, and 14 seats in the national parliament. In many instances, calls by monks and the RNDP for the ouster of Rohingya and Kaman Muslim communities were accompanied by instructions to the Buddhist population to socially and economically isolate them.
The apparent aim was to cut off the remaining Muslims from income-generating activities, access to markets and food, and other basic services necessary for daily survival so that they would decide to leave. Immediately after the first wave of sectarian violence in June , local Buddhist monks circulated pamphlets calling for the isolation of Muslims. The day the pamphlet was distributed, a Buddhist monk in Sittwe who spearheaded the effort told Human Rights Watch:.
This action was replicated by other Arakanese organizations throughout the state. On July 5, monks representing the sangha in Rathedaung Township, 30 kilometers north of Sittwe, held a meeting and subsequently issued a point statement. The statement calls on Arakanese in Rathedaung Township to avoid employing Rohingya in a range of jobs, including day laborers, carpenters, masons, and in farming. The RNDP also played an instrumental role in stoking fear and encouraging isolation of and violence against the Rohingya. In some cases, the RNDP issued warnings and threats against Arakanese found to be aiding or associating with Rohingya in any way.
In late September, a large two-day public meeting was held in Rathedaung that resulted in a public statement. There were approximately 2, Arakanese participants, including representatives from all 17 state townships and representatives from major political parties and social organizations. It was billed as the largest public meeting in modern Arakan history. Many Arakanese view the Rohingya as monolithic group intent on waging an anti-Buddhist war in Arakan State or at least spreading fundamentalist Islam there, and throughout the country.
But Smith and others agree these groups and others never posed a serious threat to the Burmese military state, their principal target, nor to Burmese society. For instance, the Buddhist monk in Sittwe who initially led the campaign to isolate Muslims after the June violence told Human Rights Watch:. They study in the madrassas [Islamic religious schools].
Their ideology is the same as the Taliban. The police know this and discuss it [with us]. Importantly, such allegations have been expressed publicly and privately by members of the highest political offices. He wrote:. Members of the Arakanese sangha and RNDP have also called for changes to the demographic makeup of Arakan State and Burma, such as the expulsion of all Rohingya from the country, in interviews with the international media.
They should go there. The Muslim countries will take care of them. They should go to countries with the same religion. Several Rohingya explained to Human Rights Watch how Buddhist monks were able to isolate their communities by putting pressure on the Arakanese population. That was on October 9. They had bamboo sticks and were beating them near our neighborhood. I remembered one of the monks, his right hand is immobile. He is very active in Pauktaw.
He leads everything; he guided the monks and people. The Economist reported that an Arakanese man was killed in late October by members of his community after it was discovered that he sold large quantities of rice to Rohingya in Mrauk-U Township. Arakanese communities are also isolating Rohingya who had not been displaced.
Aung Mingalar is the last remaining Muslim neighborhood in Sittwe, currently surrounded by a population of Arakanese who have been hostile to its Muslim residents who survived the attacks in June. The area is home to Muslims and is currently guarded by both the army and police. In the months after the June violence, the Arakanese community increasingly organized to forcibly remove Rohingya from their areas.
Numerous Rohingya told Human Rights Watch that when violence started three days later, the Arakanese who attacked them were not familiar to them, leading them to believe their assailants came from outside their area. For instance, in Pauktaw, local Rohingya fishermen alleged that thousands of Arakanese with various weapons came by sea on boats to attack their villages. We welcome the priority which the Myanmar government is giving to dealing with all ethnic conflicts.
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The reality was very different. Human Rights Watch research found that during the period following the violence and abuses in June, some security forces in Arakan State — rather than responding to the growing campaign to force Rohingya out — were destroying mosques, effectively blocking humanitarian aid to Rohingya populations, conducting violent mass arrests, and at times acting alongside Arakanese to forcibly displace Muslims.
Nonetheless, some security forces stepped in to minimize harm to threatened groups. Human Rights Watch observed army units deployed by the government to maintain order that played a positive role in stemming violence in Sittwe. They hate us. The army is Burmese [ethnic Burman]. They are protecting us. The media, several ambassadors and visiting foreign officials were able to go to Arakan State to talk with local residents and internally displaced persons. These efforts were patently insufficient to stop the visible and mounting pressure in Arakan State to drive Rohingya and other Muslims out of the country.
Between June and October, Lon Thein riot police, Nasaka border forces, and the Burmese army systematically and violently rounded up Rohingya residents in villages around Maungdaw Township in northern Arakan State, and transferred them to unknown locations. In some cases, security forces arrived with lists of people alleged to have been involved in riots in Maungdaw on June Rohingya told Human Rights Watch that these arrests caused widespread fear among Rohingya populations throughout the state. Rohingya said that following the violence in June , state security forces raided Muslim homes and villages in Maungdaw Township, at times shooting at villagers, looting homes and businesses, and rounding up people of all ages.
Those arrested included Rohingya teenagers and children as young as 8. Ethnic Arakanese were also arrested. Several UN bodies expressed concern about the treatment of Rohingya detainees. The authorities transported some of those taken into custody to other townships, such as Sittwe and Buthidaung, and most were denied access to lawyers and family members. Exacerbating unlawful treatment are the discriminatory restrictions on Rohingya — including a ban on ownership of mobile phones, limiting their ability to contact detained family members, and a requirement that they seek official permission to travel between townships to detention facilities where their relatives are being held.
The authorities appeared to target well-educated Rohingya for arbitrary arrest, detention, and torture. A well-educated Rohingya man was apprehended by Burmese intelligence services in June and interrogated for 19 consecutive days, deprived of sleep, hooded for extended periods, and threatened with physical harm. A prominent case involved Dr. Tun Aung, 65, a Rohingya medical doctor who is chairman of the Islamic Religious Affairs Council in Maungdaw, whom the authorities arrested on June 11 in Maungdaw town.
According to well-placed local sources,the authorities had enlisted him as a prominent local figure to help defuse rising tensions in the area. Tun Aung and his family safe passage to their home. Instead, authorities took him to the immigration office in Kyi Kan Pyin, a neighboring township. There he was arrested, charged with various offenses, and transferred to Sittwe.
Authorities refused to give him access to a lawyer of his choosing. In November he was tried and sentenced to 11 years in prison. Authorities also arrested Dr. When she was arrested at the Sittwe airport on June 10, she had in her possession materials from UNHCR that included standard lists of institutions in northern Arakan State that were relevant to her work.
The material was confiscated and deemed a threat to national security. Authorities dropped the charges against her due to lack of sufficient evidence and released her in December Following the June violence, authorities also arrested a total of 14 staff members of the UN and international NGOs but the authorities did not release specific information about the charges against them.
All persons arrested were Rohingya, and at least five remain in prison. UN agencies and international NGOs have been continually denied access to their detained staff members and the Burmese government has provided only minimal information about the charges against them. On August 17, , authorities released six of the detainees, including two UN staff and four international NGO staff.
On August 24, the Maungdaw court sentenced three UN staff members for crimes including promoting hatred between Buddhists and Muslims and participating in arson attacks, and ordered them imprisoned for between two and six years, but on August 28 they were pardoned by President Thein Sein. Other educated, displaced Rohingya in Arakan State who speak English — and can thus communicate to a broader international audience if given the opportunity — told Human Rights Watch they have been interrogated by the police since June One such Rohingya man said:.
They came here and were searching for me. After the June violence forced communities of Muslims to flee from Sittwe, local authorities moved in to demolish remaining structures, including home and mosques. Government officials and Arakanese cooperated in the destruction of structurally sound buildings. Another Rohingya man told Human Rights Watch about an attack on a mosque in Sittwe on the morning of June 29 that, until that time, had been unaffected by the sectarian violence.
He said:. A prominent Buddhist monk in Sittwe repeated to Human Rights Watch a widely held rumor among Arakanese that mosques in the state were militant outposts in which the Rohingya stored weapons — thus attempting to justify their destruction:. According to news reports, the authorities demolished five structurally sound mosques in Sittwe town. A mosque in Pauktaw that had been defaced with anti-Rohingya graffiti was torn down.
A Rohingya man from Sittwe researched and produced a detailed list of 28 mosques that were partially or fully destroyed in Sittwe Township since June. Although Human Rights Watch cannot independently confirm the exact number of mosques affected or the findings, the individual stated he had visited each site, described the sites in detail, and provided written records. Other Rohingya said that authorities and Arakanese destroyed mosques and religious schools in other parts of the state, including at least six mosques and six Islamic schools in Minbya Township.
Some state security forces colluded with Arakanese in the forced displacement of Muslim populations in June and in the weeks leading up to the second wave of violence in late October. Immediately prior to the onset of violence in October, local government officials, members of the RNDP, and Arakanese community members held public meetings at which they openly discussed forcibly displacing the local Rohingya population.
Rohingya and Kaman community leaders told Human Rights Watch that they attended such meetings in Pauktaw and Kyauk Pyu in which the outcome was a decision that the Muslim population should leave the area. The Rohingya and Kaman Muslims who were present at these meetings said they were unable to provide input — they were simply told it was in their best interest to move away.
I left on October Our whole village was kicked out. Lon Thein and the army arrived at that time. A [local] government official sold us gasoline for our boat engine. In October, when Kaman Muslims told the local government about their concern of an imminent attack by hostile Arakanese, the authorities called a meeting of the peacekeeping committee. UN agencies and international humanitarian organizations have long operated in the predominantly Muslim townships of northern Arakan State, providing lifesaving aid to hundreds of thousands of Rohingya.
On June 10, when the attacks against Muslims quickly escalated, security concerns forced international humanitarian organizations to evacuate their humanitarian workers from northern Arakan State and Sittwe to Rangoon. However, local Rohingya staff could not be evacuated because of Burmese government restrictions on their freedom of movement. For a period of time in June, after the violence, the government prevented all aid agencies from returning to Arakan State.
Between June and October, the authorities also denied permission for the resumption of specific aid programs by several organizations, including MSF. Food aid, primary health care, emergency medical assistance, education, and other areas of humanitarian programming were cancelled. This had a pernicious effect, exacerbating the isolation of Muslim populations and contributing to pressures on them to leave.
In some areas, state security forces, including the army, did not facilitate access for Rohingya cut off from food and other basic needs. Rohingya stated that immediately after the violence in June, security forces guarding their neighborhoods and IDP camps helped them obtain basic necessities, but that assistance only lasted a few weeks. After months of rising tensions and visible planning by monks, political party members and Arakanese communities, on October 22, , the predictable happened: mobs of thousands of Arakanese with weapons descended on Muslim communities in nine townships throughout the state.
Carrying machetes, swords, spears, homemade guns, Molotov cocktails, and other weapons, sizable groups of Arakanese men simultaneously descended on Muslim villages in several townships in a coordinated fashion. In some areas they arrived by foot, in others by a makeshift armada of small boats, braced to attack. In many areas, the groups targeted the local mosque first, and then nearby homes, easily flammable structures of bamboo and wood. The burning of entire villages to the ground was a signature tactic of these attacks.
Plumes of smoke quickly dotted the sky. The assailants killed an unknown number of Muslim men, women, and children. The sparse security forces that were stationed in these areas either failed to intervene or participated in the violence against Muslims. Most of these areas had not experienced violence in June.
Attacks on villages began as early as in the morning. Residents from six villages in Mrauk-U Township alone, all attacked on October 23, said most attacks were long and drawn-out, lasting several hours. That the attacks were planned and well-coordinated is evident in that many occurred the same day — and often the same time of day — in townships separated by considerable distance.
Many Rohingya reported that Arakanese coming to their villages were not local persons — because they did not look familiar, and because the size of the crowds exceeded the local Arakanese population. They suspected these Arakanese came from other townships. Unlike in June, the Arakanese attackers also targeted Kaman Muslims residing in the still impoverished but relatively prosperous township of Kyauk Pyu — a coastal area of multi-billion dollar oil and gas investments and relatively high property values.
The Kaman are citizens of Burma and legally recognized by the central government as an ethnic group. This ancestral home was destroyed in October and Kaman told Human Rights Watch they have no hopes of returning. The violence that week displaced over 40, Muslims and a very small number of Arakanese. According to the government, since June over , people have been internally displaced in Arakan State, nearly all of whom are Rohingya. Human Rights Watch has obtained new evidence of human rights violations accompanying the October violence in Arakan State.
This includes several eyewitness accounts of a massacre of at least 70 Rohingya on October 23 in Yan Thei village, Mrauk-U Township, in which security forces responded poorly, some actively colluding with the attacking Arakanese, as well as evidence of other unlawful killings. State security forces also used unlawful force while conducting large-scale security operations in the state. In some instances, there is evidence that security forces opened fire on Rohingya who were not threatening them.
At approximately a. According to Rohingya survivors, only five to ten Lon Thein riot police had been deployed to protect the village despite ample warning that an organized attack by Arakanese was likely. Cooper Wright is an active performer and educator in Asia. A member of the faculty of the College of Music, Mahidol University since , he teaches applied oboe, oboe literature and pedagogy and chamber music.
Wright is currently the Principal Oboist of the Bandung Philharmonic. Wright has taught masterclasses internationally in the United States, Indonesia, Thailand, and Myanmar. Christopher Schaub joined the staff of the College of Music, Mahidol University in , where he currently serves as instructor of bassoon and Assistant Dean for International Recruitment. He additionally teaches various lecture courses, including those in music theory, performance practice, music education, research methodology, and chamber music. Along with teaching duties, Schaub is active as a bassoonist.
The TPO performs 60 concerts per year and is often engaged to perform outside of Thailand. In February of Dr. Other playing opportunities include regular faculty recitals and chamber music concerts. Schaub has many research interests, including bassoon pedagogy and literature, as well as the development of woodwind teaching and playing in Thailand. He was awarded a research grant from Mahidol University to publish a website devoted to the study of bassoon orchestral excerpts www. Schaub received his B. From Florida State University he received both the M. His principal teachers include Dr.
Gene Griswold and Jeff Keesecker. Award-winning harpist and pianist Phuttaraksa Kamnirdratana is an active performer and educator. She was appointed the harpist of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra in She She also joined the faculty of the College of Music, Mahidol University that year, where she instructs the harp studio, coaches chamber music ensembles, lectures academic music classes and serves as a thesis advisor. Phuttaraksa has performed solo and chamber music all across Asia, Europe, and United States play everything from classical, jazz, and pop style.
In addition to her live performing Phuttaraksa has recorded commercial music and movie soundtracks as well as participated in many Grammy Award nominated albums. She previously performed as both harpist and pianist for several orchestras in Florida. She was the mentor for the harp section of the Ars Flores Symphony Orchestra. Some of her other work has included editing harp music for publishing companies. In addition to her diplomas, she received the Award of Merit and was granted a full scholarship with a graduate assistantship position. During her undergraduate studies, she held a position as a member of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra from , performing on both harp and piano.
Phuttaraksa has studied privately with some of the finest harpists around the world which include Deborah Fleisher, Marguerite Lynn Williams, and Jie Zhou. Kanin started learning piano and music fundamentals at the age of five, then 4 years later began his violin lessons with Rear Admiral Veeraphan Vawklang at Bangkok Symphony Music school BSS.
In he was a member of Thai Youth Orchestra and has been a member of Bangkok Symphony Orchestra BSO since , considered to be the youngest member at that time. As the first Thai student there, Kanin has studied with Wolfgang David, an internationally known Austrian violinist, Prof. Jela Spitkova and Prof. Stephan Goerner Carmina Quartet. Likewise, he has performed in many other events for international relations, both in Austria and Germany.
Maris Arents is lecturer of double bass and chamber music and has been on the faculty of the College of Music, Mahidol University since From — he was a member of Latvian National Symphony Orchestra. From — as a Principal of Double Bass section of Latvian National Symphony Orchestra he performed around the world under baton of the famous conductors as M. Jansons, J. Kakhidze, V.
Sinaisky, K. Simonov, G. Rozdestvensky, K. Mazur, J. Panula, O. Eltss, T. Mikkelsen, N. Jarvi, P. Megi, A. Nelsons, K. Chichon and many others. Rostropovich, D. Oistrach, S. Richter, M. Maisky, G. Kremer, V. Repin, I Monigetti, A. Brown, E. Garanca, B. Skride, V. Shimkus and many others. Many of his double bass students are professional musicians at Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra and other places in Thailand.
From — he was Principal double bass of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra.
As a freelance musician Mr. In Prof. German-British cellist Stefanie Waegner grew up in a vibrant youth orchestra scene in her home town Fuerth in Germany. Her students have won prizes at international competitions in Thailand and Japan, but above all a tangible spirit of teamwork, making-music-together and inclusion is establishing itself through the intensive study of chamber music at the College of Music, Mahidol University. She performs regularly together with other faculty members such as pianists Dr.
Apart from classical music Stefanie has a passion for playing Tango and Celtic music. He studied cello performance under the Latvian professor Eleonora Testeleca, a winner of the Tchaikovsky International Competition in Moscow. An active chamber music player Ms. His students have won international competitions in Latvia and national competitions in Thailand. He also teaches string literature and pedagogy at Mahidol University.
At FSU, he was a graduate assistant. His duties were performance based, and he performed in over forty chamber concerts in addition to numerous solo and orchestral performances. Andre Thomas. During his academic pursuits, Danny studied viola with Dr. Pamela Ryan, Dr. Alvaro Gomez, and Dr. Routa Kromouvitch-Gomez. In addition to his academic and performance experience, Dr. Keasler has also served as a quality assurance technician and musician with MakeMusic Inc. He also served as Personnel Manager of Sinfonia Gulf Coast based out of Destin, Florida and was responsible for contracting and coordinating performances that were held throughout northwest Florida.
He is a full time faculty at the College of Music Mahidol University. He has a wide experience of playing viola, including performing solo, chamber music, and orchestra domestically and internationally. She also teaches in Italy during the summer months, at the Cremona International Academy and Festival. In Bangkok, she has performed with the new-music group Contemporary Enclave and as a founding member of the Bangkok Piano Trio. Born into a family of prominent musicians, her studies began at the age of seven at the Manuel Saumell Conservatory for gifted children, in Havana.
Brook Dissertation Award, in Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Violinist Inga Causa earned her musical education in Latvia. She started to practice violin at the early age of 6. Izrail Abramiss. After Inga continued her education at the Latvian Music Academy with prof. At the young age of 18 Inga started to work at the Latvian National Opera orchestra for 4 years. She also loves to play with a quartet. With different orchestra groups Inga has traveled through Europe and Asia. Simonov, T. Mikkelsen and many others.
On November she arrived to Thailand to became a teacher of violin, ensemble and quartet at the Mahidol University. Her students usually are between the winners of prestigious competitions in Thailand. He has been a member of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra since and co-principal of the first violin section since Paraschoudis began his musical studies at the age of 5 in Thessaloniki, Greece. Dinos Constantinides. Szawelski has received many awards, such as: 1st prize in Competition for young Cellists in Malbork , 2nd prize in national Competition for Young Musicians in Wloszakowice and 4th award in national Competition for Chamber Ensemble in Wroclaw Currently Marcin T.
Szawelski is a cello and chamber music instructor at the College of Music, Mahidol University in Thailand. With those ensembles he gave more than concerts in recent years. Michael Robinson, Jr. He has been an active freelance trombonist in Michigan and South Carolina as well as a private low brass instructor in Dorchester District 2, Berkeley, and Charleston Counties. From , he was awarded a 2-year contract as the Detroit Symphony Orchestra Fellow where his duties included playing principal and second trombone, along with community outreach services in the Detroit Metro Area.
He is also a member of the Variance Brass Quintet with members from his undergraduate studies. As an avid chamber music performer, he is a member of the Variance Brass Quintet, which started a summer brass camp in in Tucson, AZ. Most recently, he is a founding member of an African-American brass quartet named Pitch. Kraisit Suwanlao is a full time lecturer at the College of Music, Mahidol University where he teaches applied percussion and percussion chamber music in the Young Artist Music Program. He is also a full time member of the percussion section of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra since He was born in in Bangkok, Thailand.
Wannapha Yannavut and Mr. Kyle Acuncius. While studying at Mahidol University, he has many opportunities to play as a concert percussionist. He teaches applied trumpet, studio class and small ensemble. Puengpreeda was a member of the trumpet section of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra from He is also in demand as a jazz pianist, and performs regularly for a variety of functions and events.
Since , Sompop became conductor of the Bangkok Milal Missionary Choir, whom he has conducted and performed with in many provinces in Thailand and many countries around the world. His major trumpet teachers include Dr. Kitti Sawetkittikul has been on the faculty of the College of Music at Mahidol University since where he teaches applied tuba and euphonium and brass chamber music.
He has served as principal tuba of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra since His major teachers include J. Salas, Christof Kiene, and Surapol Thanyawibul. Chumpol Channarong and Ms. Nanhathai Vitayanantapornkul. Later she went on to study with Mr. From , she veered away from music, studying Thai language and literature at Prince of Songkhla University, Pattani Campus. During that time, she was a member of the music club. Kae Reed and Mr.
Dan Moore. Additionally, she studied with Dr. John Parks for one month at the Florida State University in She was also principal percussionist of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra from and was promoted to timpanist in In , she was invited to play as a soloist with the Mahidol Wind Symphony. A member of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra since , Bowman has previously performed with the Memphis Symphony, the Phoenix Symphony, and many regional orchestras. He has given solo performances and master classes across the United States, Asia, and Europe.
Recently, he performed as a soloist with the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra, appeared in recital and in presentations at the International Trumpet Guild Conferences, and given master classes at the Central Conservatory in Beijing, the National University of Singapore, and the Hanoi Conservatory in Vietnam. In , Bowman and Mahidol University had the honor to host the International Trumpet Guild Conference in Bangkok, which was a tremendous success and drew critical acclaim.
He has served ITG in many capacities over the past decade, including as youth web editor from He lives in Bangkok with his wife Lisa, and his son Alex. Daren Robbins has been on the faculty of the College of Music at Mahidol University since and a member of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra from At the College he serves as chair of the Brass and Percussion Department as well as professor of horn, brass literature and pedagogy, and chamber music.
Daren is the creator of hornexcerpts. Alongkorn Laosaichuea is lecturer of trumpet at the College of Music, Mahidol University in the Young Artist Music program since , where he teaches applied trumpet, trumpet and brass literature, and brass chamber music. Kiatkong Subhayon has been a full time lecturer in classical guitar at the College of Music since where he teaches applied guitar in the Young Artist Music Program.
Jetjumnong Jongprasert was born in in Bangkok and raised in Chiang Mai where he began classical guitar studies at the age of ten. There, he was the first and only Thai student, who completed bachelor degree with honors in Classical Guitar Performance under Prof. He also had an opportunity to study Guitar Ensemble with Michael Troester. Jetjumnong was invited to perform in various concerts throughout Europe, including ones in Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Lichtenstein, etc.
After 5 years in Germany, he decided to finally return to Thailand with the determination to develop and introduce classical guitar studies for the younger Thai generation. He began touring concerts throughout the country, performing master classes and has regularly been invited to be a judge for numerous competitions.
In an addition he studied music theory with Herman Spier and orchestration with the renowned composer William Ferris. His interest in the guitar music of the early nineteen century has led him to the performance practice of the period by using the historical instrument. Born in , Rattanai Bampenyou started his first guitar lesson at the age of seventeen. Having received his B. In , he attended University of Miami, Frost School of Music and majored in instrumental performance classical guitar. At the Frost School, he studied guitar with Dr.
Nalin was the second prize winner of Yamaha Guitar Festival She has appeared as a soloist with orchestra and also gave a regular solo and chamber music recital. Since she has served on the guitar faculty at the College of Music, Mahidol University where she teaches applied guitar lessons, guitar literature and guitar ensemble, and music theory. Her students are the prize winners of many guitar competitions.
She is also a staff of Thailand Guitar Society. As a member of the Boyadjiev-Cesarczyk duo he performs alongside his wife, violinist Yavet Boyadjiev, and is currently expanding the contemporary violin and guitar repertoire with commissions. An active proponent of new music, Mr. A composer in his own right, Mr. His most influential teachers were guitarists David Starobin and Jerry Willard.
He is also on the faculty of the Cremona International Music Academy and Competition, in Italy, during the summer months. His dedication to teaching has produced numerous prize winners in national and international competitions. Cesarczyk performs on a guitar made by John Price and uses Augustine strings exclusively. Kanyaluk began piano study when she was 10 years old at Yamaha Music School in Ratchaburi. Her major piano teachers included Dr. Eun-Young Suh. Kanyuluk has participated in several master classes with major pianists including Garlinde Ott, Lambis Vassiliadis.
Her interest in piano pedagogy led her to complete training in the Suzuki Method in Taiwan. Anothai Nitibhon and Thirabutr Jantararat. Woohyung Yang. She was also selected for an award from Her Royal Highness Princess Soamsawali for her contributions in music activities to Thailand by the Ministry of Tourism and Sports of Thailand in Siri Sranoi started his music lesson at the age of 5 at Yamaha Music School. In , He completed with Advanced Certificate in Yamaha fundamentals grade 5.
In , He was accepted to be a piano major student for Undergraduate program, College of Music, Mahidol University, where he graduated the Bachelor degree in and graduated the Master degree in He played in masterclasses with international pianists including Prof. Istvan Bonyhadi, Prof. Lambis Vassiliadis and Prof. His piano teachers are included Mrs. Chavalida Krueasingha, Ms.
Jung Ming Lee, Dr. Ramasoon Sitalayan, Mrs. Yoshimi Matsushima and Assist. He moved to Thailand and became a full-time lecturer at School of Music, Assumption University in , and organized solo and ensemble concerts, a lot of school activities, and performed with many musicians in Thailand and Japan. Throughout performing together, Paulo Zereu became one of his influential pianists.
Rasikamon Siyapong was born on 13 th May, She started her piano lesson at the age of 5. In , she graduated from College of Music, Mahidol University majored piano performance with a first-class honors. Her piano teachers are included Mr. She has performed in many solo and chamber music concerts. She has also played in numerous masterclasses with many international artists including Prof. Rolf-Dieter Arens, Prof. Tomasz Herbut, Dr. Lim Pei Sien, Prof. Kemal Gekic, Prof. Julie Bees, Prof. Susan Gray, Prof. Gustavo Romero, Mag. Lambis Vassiliadis, Dr.
Robert Satterlee and Prof. Wolfram Schmitt-Leonardy. She is currently a staff accompanist at College of Music, Mahidol University. He teaches applied piano and small ensemble, and is also a staff accompanist. Teeranai has vast performance experience and has won numerous scholarships and prizes throughout his study. Lambis Vassiliadis and Mr. Maxim Mogilevksy. Teeranai has been conducting since and has studied Principal Conducting with Dr.
James Cherry, Mr. Shuichi Komiyama. He participated in conducting master classes with world-renowned conductors such as Prof. Dennis Fisher, Mr. Bundit Ungrangsee and Mr. Gudni A. In , Teeranai was the Associate Director of Bands. He serves as conductor of the Mahidol Symphonic Band. He has appeared as a guest conductor with several ensembles including the St. Jirasirikul, T. Available from Jiew Bagnsur Music Library.
TP Tg In , conducted and composed music for Buddhist event at Siam paragon hall. In , produced and arranged music of the Plum Blossoms Vol. Born to a musical family his father was a renowned traditional Makom singer , Mr. Bakhtiyor Allaberganov started piano studies at the Special Music School for gifted children in Khorezm region, and shortly thereafter won the Young Pianist Competition of Uzbekistan. Allaberganov has supported and coached numerous singers and string players through recitals and competitions in the former Soviet Union, Uzbekistan, as well as in Thailand.
M, and Illinois State University M. M, Ksenia Nosikova.
Education in Myanmar
Her primary teachers have included Dr. Eri Nakagawa, Dr. Joshua Russell, Dr. Mina Ivanova, Dr. Ramasoon Sitalayan, and Supaphon Vibulpanuvej. In , she was appointed the staff collaborative artist at the College of Music, Mahidol University. Sornsuang Tangsinmonkong is a native Thai pianist. She joined the faculty since May She is a piano department secretary, a coordinator of group piano classes and keyboard skills and a coordinator of the piano performance practice courses. Her responsibility includes teaching keyboard classes, piano performance practice, small ensemble and private piano lessons.
Barbara Hesse-Bukowska. Tangsinmonkong was received the certificate of recognition of the professionalism and skill from Trinity Award Thailand from teaching her student who received the second highest marks in ATCL Recital in While she was studying at the West Virginia University, she was also awarded scholarships from the Valarie Canady Charitable Trust Foundation in three consecutive years: , and Trinity College of Music, London. Miguel del Aguila January 21, , Prof. Christopher Taylor , Prof. Gustavo Romero , Dr. Robert Palmer , Antony Peebles , and Prof. Barbara Hesse-Bukowska She also enjoys working as a collaborative pianist and accompanist with distinguished musicians in Thailand and abroad.
Many of her students have won top prizes in national and international competitions, and her former students have received scholarships in prestigious schools such as Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music, Juilliard School, Mozarteum University Salzburg, Royal College of Music, etc.
Suparchai Sorathorn has been on the faculty of the College of Music at Mahidol University since and a member of the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra since He served as Principal Horn from and continues as a member of the section today. At Mahidol he serves as a professor of horn and chamber music such as Horn Quartet. He is an active member of the International Horn Society.
“All You Can Do is Pray”
Suparchai is now coaching for Patumwilai High School Band. Suparchai has been a musician for Bangkok Symphony Orchestra and many chambers in Thailand. He holds degrees from the Sripatum University and is now studying for his Master Degree degree at Bannsomdej University. Music Education Graduated from Chulalongkorn University. Wittaya is a member of The Resonance Band. Faculty since September Passakorn Suwannaphan. Sita started to work at Music Campus for General Public, College of Music Mahidol University Seri center as a piano part time teacher since and she had promoted to the full time teacher on March Thai Music Graduated from Chulalongkorn University.
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In Progress. Somchai Trakarnrung. Trakarnrung, S. Syllabus of Western Music Theory. ISBN: Plitakul, P. A study of analytical and critical thinking behaviors about music. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Mahidol University, Thailand. Kongtuk, K. Thai music in series of archaeological dances: An interpretation of historical symbolic meaning. Promsukkul, P. Developing musicianship through improvisation: An eclectic teaching module for pre-school children.
Chiengchana, N. Examining the effects of Kodaly-based music experiences on social communication responses and musical learning for children with autism spectrum disorders. Laovanich, V. Marginalization of music subject in Thai basic education curriculum: Archeology of knowledge approach. Leeswadtrakul, S. Sugree Charoensook: Music education reformist. Pitupumnak, K. A narrative study of professional artistry in selected Thai music teachers.
Promsukkul, M. Acquisition of absolute pitch in Thai traditional music training. Songned, K. The inheritance of Sa-Law in Lanna music culture. Parental involvement in the development of young piano students. Suriyonplengsaeng, C. Parent and teacher partnership in supporting children musical learning. Tayrattanachai, N. A study of piano pedagogy course content at undergraduate level in Thailand. Thummarattana, P. Contemporary commercial music vocal training for Thai singers.
Roongruang, W. Television and Thai music: Khanthapsala program Meepom, D. Suwannaphachana, P. Mutto Taek: Improvisational indigenous knowledge in traditional Phleng Khorat. Charanyananda, A. Hirunrux, S. Pum-In, P. In progress. An analytical study of music education research during Wangphanich, C. The integration of e-learning in higher music education in Thailand. Suksangjan, N. Unpublished masters thesis, Mahidol University, Thailand. Fuangaugsorn, N. Mapping the way to alleviate music performance anxiety. Jumneanpan, W. An analytical study of the grade one music textbook at the Kecskemet Kodaly Zoltanenek-Zeneiiskola, Hungary.
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